Yeast prions form infectious amyloid inclusion bodies in bacteria
1 Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193, Bellaterra, Spain
2 Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193, Bellaterra, Spain
3 Departament de Fisicoquímica, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Joan XXIII s/n, E-08028, Barcelona, Spain
4 Institut de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (IN2UB), Barcelona, Spain
Microbial Cell Factories 2012, 11:89 doi:10.1186/1475-2859-11-89Published: 25 June 2012
Prions were first identified as infectious proteins associated with fatal brain diseases in mammals. However, fungal prions behave as epigenetic regulators that can alter a range of cellular processes. These proteins propagate as self-perpetuating amyloid aggregates being an example of structural inheritance. The best-characterized examples are the Sup35 and Ure2 yeast proteins, corresponding to [PSI+] and [URE3] phenotypes, respectively.
Here we show that both the prion domain of Sup35 (Sup35-NM) and the Ure2 protein (Ure2p) form inclusion bodies (IBs) displaying amyloid-like properties when expressed in bacteria. These intracellular aggregates template the conformational change and promote the aggregation of homologous, but not heterologous, soluble prionogenic molecules. Moreover, in the case of Sup35-NM, purified IBs are able to induce different [PSI+] phenotypes in yeast, indicating that at least a fraction of the protein embedded in these deposits adopts an infectious prion fold.
An important feature of prion inheritance is the existence of strains, which are phenotypic variants encoded by different conformations of the same polypeptide. We show here that the proportion of infected yeast cells displaying strong and weak [PSI+] phenotypes depends on the conditions under which the prionogenic aggregates are formed in E. coli, suggesting that bacterial systems might become useful tools to generate prion strain diversity.