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Open Access Highly Accessed Review

Role of commensal and probiotic bacteria in human health: a focus on inflammatory bowel disease

Rebeca Martín12, Sylvie Miquel12, Jonathan Ulmer12, Noura Kechaou12, Philippe Langella12 and Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán12*

Author Affiliations

1 INRA, UMR1319 Micalis, Jouy-en-Josas, F-78350, France

2 AgroParisTech, UMR Micalis, Jouy-en-Josas, F-78350, France

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Microbial Cell Factories 2013, 12:71  doi:10.1186/1475-2859-12-71

Published: 23 July 2013

Abstract

The human gut is one of the most complex ecosystems, composed of 1013-1014 microorganisms which play an important role in human health. In addition, some food products contain live bacteria which transit through our gastrointestinal tract and could exert beneficial effects on our health (known as probiotic effect). Among the numerous proposed health benefits attributed to commensal and probiotic bacteria, their capacity to interact with the host immune system is now well demonstrated. Currently, the use of recombinant lactic acid bacteria to deliver compounds of health interest is gaining importance as an extension of the probiotic concept. This review summarizes some of the recent findings and perspectives in the study of the crosstalk of both commensal and probiotic bacteria with the human host as well as the latest studies in recombinant commensal and probiotic bacteria. Our aim is to highlight the potential roles of recombinant bacteria in this ecosystem.

Keywords:
Bacteria-host crosstalk; Dysbiosis; Genetically modified microorganisms