Full scale biofilm reactors: (a) biothane biofilm airlift suspension and expanded granular sludge blanket (Biobed) reactors at Gist Brocades, Delft (The Netherlands); (b) Pagues CIRCOX (foreground; 140 m3) and internal circulation (background; 385 m3) reactors at a brewery in Brazil. Reprinted from "Nicolella C, van Loosdrecht MCM, Heijnen SJ: Particle-based biofilm reactor technology. Trends in Biotechnology 2000, 18: 312–320, with permission from Elsevier, United Kingdom.
Qureshi et al. Microbial Cell Factories 2005 4:24 doi:10.1186/1475-2859-4-24