Table 1

Measurement principle

Target/Information

Vendor (commercial system e.g.)

Advantages

Disadvantages


Paramagnetism

Oxygen/mass balancing

ABB Ltd CH-8050 Zurich Switzerland

Selectivity, stability

Desiccation of sample, delayed delivery of representative gas sample due to varying head space

Dielectric spectroscopy

Membrane-enclosed biovolume

Aber Instruments (Biomass Monitor)

Good correlation to biomass

Signal influenced by variation of conductivity of fermentation broth

2D-Fluorescence spectrometry

Typical intracellular substances involved in metabolic pathways

DELTA (BioView)

Capture of minute changes in chemical composition of the cell

Direct reading of process variables not possible multivariate data analysis required

Infrared spectrometry

Typical intracellular substances

FossNIR-Systems (Model 6500) ABB (BOMEM MB160)

Spectral fingerprint of principle cellular constituents

Direct reading of process variables not possible multivariate data analysis required

Mass spectrometry

Volatile organic compounds

Ionimed (PTR-MS)

Identification of chemical components, mass balancing enabled

Critical issue: sampling of head space

Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistor

Volatile organic compounds

ALPHA M.O.S

Versatile sensor arrays

Direct reading of process variables not possible multivariate data analysis required


Clementschitsch and Bayer Microbial Cell Factories 2006 5:19   doi:10.1186/1475-2859-5-19

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